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Fantasia e variazioni brillanti opus 30 F. Sor

Dernière mise à jour : 26 nov. 2018

Listen to Fantasia opus 30:

Introduction, variations 1 & 2:

This music could remind the time of the masquerade balls. This popular theme in the E minor key and its variations are made of 8 sections: an introduction, a first theme, 4 variations on the first theme, the first theme again and a last longer ternary part with 2 other themes. Or maybe we could understand the first theme and its 4 variations as a first part, and the last section containing the 2 other themes as a 2nd part.


Measures 1 to 8:

As this piece is written in the E minor key, the introduction begins with the tonic E played in the bass register with a “French overture” rhythm (which will be used later in the theme). This rhythmic tonic pedal alternates with plated chords on each first beat of each measure.

Note that in measure 3, the tonic in the bass becomes a minor 7th of a F#-7b5 chord, 2nd degree of the E harmonic (or natural) minor scale. Measure 4 uses a D#° chord over the tonic bass (dominant over the tonic). Measure 5 plays the tonic chord E-. Measures 6 makes us ear E7, dominant of the subdominant A, but it goes in measure 7 on a FM chord, as if it was a V – VI progression in the A minor key. In fact this is a III7 to IVM progression and so a modulation to the C major key. Measure 8 confirms it with the 4th and 6th 2nd inversion of CM, a D7 (V/V) and a dominant of C (G7).

What is interesting in these 8 first measures is this unexpected modulation to the C major key. Concerning the soprano, it consists in an upward stepwise motion from the tonic E to the subdominant A. In measure 8, remark the approach note A (a 9th) of the root G.

Thanks to the rhythm, plated chords, absence of melody or real theme, rise of suspense from the upward soprano and the modulation, Fernando Sor managed to pique listeners’ interest.

Measure 9 to 23:

Measures 9 to 16: a preview of the theme

This introduction continues in the C major key with the tonic CM chord in measure 9. What is interesting is that the beginning of the (next) theme appears in the bass register, but it may be difficult to ear it at the first time. While the bass is singing the theme, the accompaniment plays quarter notes with a dominant pedal (G). Chords alternate between I and V (CM and G7).

From measures 11 to 13, while the bass is playing a tonic pedal (C), the accompaniment follows an upward chromatic motion from G (dominant of the C major key) to B (dominant of the E minor key). To go back in the E minor key, measure 12 uses a C+ chord (which can be compared to a E7 altered chord because of the common tones E and G#), a A- chord (subdominant of the E minor key) and a C7 chord (substitute of F#7).

That’s how the music comes back in the E minor key in measure 13, with a dominant chord (B7). Note that this time the dominant pedal is played by the bass, and the theme by the soprano. As the dominant chord alternates with the tonic chord, a pedal 4th and 6th 2nd inversion of E- is formed. On the last beat of measure 14, remark the F#M (V/V) over the dominant bass.

Measures 17 to 23:

In measure 17, in the treble register, there is a chromatic approach of the dominant B (A# - B). Then this 2 notes motif is reproduced an octave lower, like an echo (but without chromatism: A – B). However note the beautiful downward chromatic motion A#, A, G#, G in the intermediate line. The chord progression B7, EM, E- makes it possible. The last beat of measure 17 can be understood as a F#7.

Finally, this introduction ends with a long pause on the BM dominant chord from measures 20 to 23, and with a chromatic downward motion from B to A.

Once again F. Sor wrote an efficient 2 parts introduction, letting us ear just enough elements of the musical speech, using pedal notes, rhythmic unity, chromatic motions and original modulations.


It sounds like a country dancing theme. This popular theme is mainly based on the tonic and the dominant chord of the E minor key. It lasts 24 measures (not including the repetition of measures 1 to 8) and can be divided in 4 groups of 4 measures. The first 8 measures are repeated 2 times, and the 8 last ones too. There is a pause on the dominant chord in measures 4, 12 and 20, and a pause on the tonic chord in measures 8, 16 and 24. This kind of musical frame is called an antecedent and consequent.

The first 4 measures:

This theme begins with an upward 4th from the dominant B to the tonic E. From measures 1 to 8, the soprano can be summed up as follows: E, D#, E, F# and A, G, F#, E. We can also note the stepwise upward motion of the bass from D# to B (measures 5 to 7). Concerning the chords degrees, there is symmetry between the 4 first measures and measures 5 to 8: I V I V and then V I V I. It is an efficient chords frame to write music in the classic period style (like Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven music).

Measures 9 to 24:

This 2nd part also begins with an upward 4th but this time it’s from the tonic E to the subdominant A. In measures 9 and 10 is played a A- subdominant chord. Note the sort of imitation between soprano and bass, the upward octave in measures 9 and 10 sounding like an echo of the upward 4th. In measure 11, below the soprano, a motif is parallel to the melody.

Measures 13 to 16 consist in an embellishment of 5 to 8. However, from measure 12 almost each note of the theme is harmonized by a plated chord. Measure 15 shows an interesting conclusive progression: A- (and because of the soprano a possibly passing II), a passing 4th and 6th (like a 2nd inversion of I) over the dominant bass and V7 (with a delayed 4th in the soprano).

Soprano in measure 16 consists in an embellishment of the tonic. Concerning the octave F# - F# between bass and soprano in measure 14, note that it is brought by an opposite motion.

The 8 last measures (17 to 24) are a repetition of 9 to 16.

We can learn from this theme the use of plated chords, repetitive rhythm and simple harmonic and melodic material. As a result, this theme is easily recognizable.

First variation:

Of course, as it is a theme and variation form, variations almost follow the same structure as that of the theme above. But this first variation uses a ternary rhythm and could has been written in a 6/8 measure instead of using triplets of quarter notes in a 2/4 measure.

Measures 1 to 8:

Chords changes almost show the same symmetry as that of the theme: I V I V and V I II V I. As it was the case in the theme, it begins with the upward 4th B – E. In the soprano of measures 1 and 2, the first beats use the same notes as that of the theme. Note the use of passing tones, arpeggios and embellishments to create variety in the soprano.

Measures 9 to 16:

However, in measures 9 and 10, we can hear a modulation to the G major key (the relative key). This is brought by the progression CM, A-, D7 (with a delayed 4th) and GM. Like in the introduction, the return to the tonic key passes through a C+ chord, substitute of the dominant of the dominant of the E minor key (F#7). In measure 12, there is the usual pause on the dominant chord of the tonic key BM. Once again, let’s remark that the octave between bass and soprano is brought by an opposite motion of those 2 lines (C - B and A# - B). In measure 13, the D#°7 chord is a diminished form of the dominant. As it was the case in the theme, this variation repeats the end of the 8 first measures: indeed measures 13 to 16 are almost like 5 to 8.

2nd variation:

This 2nd variation uses almost the same chords changes as the first variation (with the G major modulation in the 2nd part) except in the 4 first measures which use a chromatic “bass” (or lowest line). The hallmarks of this variation lay in a nice singing bass, a continuous flow of quarter notes and eight notes triplets. Compared to the first variation, the soprano is relatively quiet, the role of the bass being almost a 2nd line.

Measures 1 to 16:

The 4 first measures consist in downward chromatic thirds in a high register. This line goes from the tonic to the dominant. It uses the following chords: E-, CM, BM, B° (=E7), AM and C7. Once again the dominant chord in measure 4 is brought by a C7, which is the substitute of the F#7 chord (the dominant of the dominant). Concerning the soprano, it consists in a chromatic approach of the root of each chord.

Then, from measures 5 to 8, the soprano follows the E minor scale in a stepwise downward motion from the subdominant A to the tonic E. Moreover, thirds are now in the soprano line, instead of being played by the bass (which now uses quarter notes, as if it was a baroque bassus continuus).

In measure 7, note the delayed 7th of the 2nd degree F#-7b5 chord, which resolves on the D#. Also note the passing 7th of CM in the bass in measure 6.

Measures 9 to 16 are a repetition of 1 to 8, except the soprano which now uses eight notes to play the approach notes of the roots (9 to 11).

Measures 17 to 24:

There are the same chords changes as in the 1st variation. Note the delayed 7th in the soprano in measure 18. Measures 17 to 19 make us ear the modulation to the relative G major key (with the A-, D7 and GM progression). Note that the soprano of measure 19 is the same as that of the theme. In measure 19, there is also the interesting chords progression GM, F#° (=D7) and E° (=F#7), which means that the dominant of GM can be followed by that of E-. This combination can be written with the stepwise bass G, A, A#, B (19 to 20). In measure 20 the E minor key is back. The last measures from 21 to 24 are a repetition of 13 to 16.

Third variation:

This variation sound in the same tonic E but this time in the E major key and uses the (“French overture”) rhythm already found in the introduction and the theme. It should be played rather Forte and with some Rubato (a varying or free tempo), because a stable tempo would sound too much mechanic and would prevent the player from highlighting the different chromatic lines and fast embellishments in the soprano.

Measures 1 to 16:

It begins like the theme with the upward 4th B – E and the repeated E. In measure 1, once again the C7 chord is used to bring the dominant chord. In measure 3, it is the usual V/V (F#7) chord which brings it. In measure 4, note the delayed 4th of BM, resolving on the D#. Also remark the sicilian ternary rhythm on the 2nd beat.

It can be also added that the soprano goes to a high register from measure 1 to 4, and goes back down from 5 to 8. Moreover, it begins on a E in measure 1 and it ends by a E too in measure 4 (an octave upper) and 8. In measures 5 and 6, the soprano repeats the dominant of the moment (of F#- and EM). And so measure 5 uses a short modulation to F# minor.

From measures 1 to 4, this soprano line is a broken one with the upward 4th (B-E and B-E), and then it is a stepwise downward line. All of this may suggest a crescendo from measure 1 to 4, accenting measure 4, and playing a decrescendo from 5 to 8.

In measure 8 the soprano uses an échappée on the dominant chord before the tonic resolution (the G# which is a 13th of B7 in Jazz analysis).

In measure 9 note the interesting progression C#-, C7 and BM (VI, substitute of V/V and V) with the chromatic bass C#, C and B. Also note the delayed B (7th of the C#- chord) and the chromatic intermediate line B, A#, A, G#.

In measures 13 and 14, there are the same chords as in 5 and 6, but with more counterpoint in the intermediate line.

Measures 17 to 32:

In measure 16, the chromatic bass (E, D#, D, C# and C) makes us ear a E7 (V/IV) chord. Measures 17 and 18 use the subdominant (degree IV) of the 2 modes (major and minor) of the E.

In measure 19 we can hear the usual C7 chord. Measure 21 is an echo of 5 and 6 with embellishments (as measures 21 to 24 use the same material as 5 to 8.

In measure 24 (in comparison to 16) appears the same process as in 13 and 14 (compared to 5 and 6): when the different lines follow different rhythms, some counterpoint is created!

Fourth variation:

Specificities of this variation are eight note arpeggios and plated chords. It sounds in the E minor key and may be played rather Forte.

It begins with the B- E upward 4th. Every four measures (1, 5, 9…) there are arpeggios with eight notes rhythm, the soprano playing large intervals (a diminished 7th in measure 7) in the 3 next measures, harmonized with plated chords.

Like in almost every 8 measures groups, the register is going upward from measure 1 to 4, and downward from 5 to 8. We can also note the use of the natural harmonics of the E- chord (G, B and E in measures 6, 8…).

Moreover, what is interesting in measure 5 is the F#° chord (degree II) arpeggio approached by a natural D (instead of D#). Also remark the approach note F# in measure 30.

Finally, the form of the 4 variations can be summed up as follows:

Tonic key

a pause on V b resolution on I

4 measures 4 measures (with repetition)

Relative key Tonic key

a’ pause on V b resolution on I

4 measures 4 measures (with repetition)

Note that the theme follows the same form, but without the modulation to the G major key.

Back to the introduction and theme: modernism in the form

Measures 1 to 23:

In the Lento section appears for the 2nd time some original components of the introduction and the theme. This section must be played immediately after measure 31 of the 4th variation, and so it creates a nice and unexpected V VI progression (avoided resolution of the dominant). In fact, this progression is used as a real definitive modulation: the first measure plays a CM chord and the music stays in the C major key until measure 7.

From measure 1 to 8 we find back measures 9 to 12 of the introduction. However from measure 9, it is changing from the introduction since the C7 chord is going this time to a 4th and 6th 2nd inversion of E-. Note that in measure 10 the delayed 4th E of the bass B is prepared earlier by the E in measure 9, since it is not just an approach of a dominant chord in a conclusive progression but a real passing 2nd inversion.

From measures 8 to 12, there is an opposite stepwise (and even chromatic) motion between bass (from C to A) and soprano (from G to B). This may suggest playing crescendo. Measure 11 uses a V/V A#° chord and measure 12 is also a diminished form (of the dominant) D#°7.

From measures 12 to 17, there is a long pause on the dominant diminished chord, which may suggest a free tempo and playing Forte.

From 18 to 21, the soprano follows a chromatic downward motion from C# to A. Measure 19 plays F#7 (V/V) and D#°7 (V).

All of this leads to a conclusive progression with a 4th and 6th 2nd inversion of E- in measure 22, which consists this time in approaching the next dominant chord (B7). As the intensity of the music is decreasing from measures 18 to 23, it may be played decrescendo.

From measures 24 to 43:

The theme appears again with the 2nd arrangement. However the 8 first measures (a and b) are not repeated. Then the 2nd part of the theme (the 8 last measures a’ and b) is played but only the first part of it (the a part) is repeated, so as to finish by the dominant chord BM, since the last section Allegretto must be played immediately after it. So finally 3 sections must be played without any interruptions: the 4th variation, the Lento section and the Allegretto section.

But this Lento intermediate section brings modernity thanks to the amazing way of going to the C major key, and also with quoting only fragments of the introduction and the theme. So this section may create suspense and pique the interest of the listener: it’s no longer an introduction, it’s neither a conclusion…What could possibly be left to discover?


Here are 2 other popular country dancing themes. However the form of this section is much more complex than that of the other. Despite the difficulty of finding a pre-existing form which could fit to it, at least it may be divided in 4 parts and a coda:

From measure 1 to 39: a first theme A beginning in the E minor tonic key and ending in G major.

39 to 104: a second theme B in the G major relative key

104 to 158: a C intermediate section without specific theme beginning in the G major key and ending in the E minor key

158 to 243: this last part uses material of A, B and C in the tonic key, but as it feels like a return, let’s call it A’.

243 to 259: the Coda

Melodic A theme:

This section is written in a ternary 6/8 measure and still sounds in the E minor key. If we look at the form of this first part, we may notice a Fibonacci sequence (1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21):

Measure 1 to 9: the first part of the A theme is repeated 2 times. Since there are 2 groups of 4 measures, the repetition of the first 4 measures begins in measure 5. Since the first 4 measures are a repetition of 2 identical measures, the repetition of the 2 first measures begins in measure 3.

9 to 13: here is the 2nd part of the A theme

13 to 21: once again the first part of the A theme is repeated 2 times

21 to 39: variation on the 2nd part of the A theme followed by a conclusive group of measures

Measures 1 to 5:

Since there is no interruption between the Lento and Allegretto section, it is possible for this theme to begin on the 2nd beat of the 1st measure and by a dominant chord. Note that the harmony is only based on the tonic and the dominant chord, with a relatively fast harmonic rhythm. Measure 1 plays B7 and E-. Measure 2 uses B7. Note the stepwise upward bass, the dominant pedal in the intermediate line, the embellished D# in measure 2 and the E approaching the D#. The soprano pattern looks like the retrograde of the theme on which are written the 4 previous variations.

Measures 5 to 9:

It is another arrangement of measures 1 to 5. In measure 5, the F# in the soprano is now harmonized by a F#° chord, the G being either a 7th of a A-7 chord or a simple échappée. Moreover the bass line is now written in a lower register.

Measures 9 to 13:

Here is the 2nd part of the A theme. The soprano can be summed up as follows: G, F#, E, D#. In fact it is based on a harmonic sequence: B7, E- then A7b9, DM and GM7, CM. Note the delayed 7th in the soprano on the 2nd beats of measures 10 and 11. In measures 12 and 13, the intermediate line follows a chromatic upward motion from G to B. Second beat of measure 12 may be a F#-7b5 without root. There are several ways of explaining the last F# in the soprano. If the last chord is C7 (the substitute of F#7), then F# is an available tension (an échappée) and doesn’t belong to the chord tones. But even if this chord sounds like C7, it is written F#b5. So the A# may be a chromatic passing tone and F# a chord tone of F#-7b5, all of this over a C bass.

Measures 13 to 21:

During those measures, the first part of the A theme is played 2 times. In measure 15, chords are E-, E7 and F#°. It sounds a little like a V – VI progression. G# and D may be passing tones between the different chord tones. It’s the resolution of a secondary dominant chord (E7 to A- or V/IV to IV) to another chord which plays the same role (E7 to F#°).

On the first beat of measures 18 and 20, a new harmonization is used for the tonic (a 4th and 6th approach of the dominant chord).

Measures 21 to 39:

From measures 21 to 25, the second part of the theme (soprano of measures 9 to 11) is used twice: this pattern is played in measures 21 to 23 and 23 to 25. As a result, the arrangement is going upward in a relatively high register.

But this time there is a modulation to the D major key in measures 22 and 23, and to the G major key in measures 24 and 25. Note the delayed 4th of DM in measure 23, and the delayed A and C on the GM in measure 25 (a 9th and a 4th).

In measures 26 and 27, there are stepwise 1st inversions of chords from the subdominant chord to the tonic (CM, B-, A-, GM or G#°). In this sequence the soprano uses delayed 9th on each chord. As a result the whole arrangement is going downward.

The last G# in measure 27 makes sound a V/II chord (G#°). In measure 28, the bass follows a chromatic stepwise motion from B to D, passing through a A7 chord (dominant of the dominant).

Measure 30 to 39 consists in a conclusive group. Measures 30 to 36 alternate between a V and I progression and a V/V over a D bass and V. This A7 chord over the dominant bass D can be indicated +7. Measures 37 to 39 play several times the progression DM (V) and A7 (V/V), and in fact it consists in a long pause on the dominant chord of the G major key. As a result, the listener is waiting for another new theme or new part.

Will you dance with me?

From measures 39 to 46, after a silence, an opening motif based on the dominant chord (DM) is repeated 3 times (2 times incomplete, and a last time with the resolution). This pattern is played in a relatively low register without any accompaniment. Note the use of a chromatic motion between the 9th (E) and the 5th (A) of the DM chord. It sounds a little like the musical description of a bow. The first time the motif is played (40 and 41) may be more efficient with the pizzicato.

Measures 47 to 104: rhythmic B theme

In measure 47, the awaited GM tonic chord is finally heard! Before the new theme is played, it begins with the accompaniment (measures 47 and 48: one bass on the first beat and an intermediate line with a ternary rhythm). From measure 49 to 52 can be heard the first part of this new dancing theme. It is built on the tonic chord in the 2 first measures (49 & 50), then on a dominant chord and a tonic chord again (21 & 52). Note the rhythmic dominant pedal in the bass. Concerning the soprano, it uses chromatic approach tones on first beats (also remark the delayed G on the first beat of 51). Measures 53 to 56 are the repetition of it.

Measures 57 to 60 are the second part of this new dancing theme (and measures 61 to 64 are a repetition of it). It uses a tonic chord in the first measure (57), then 2 measures of a dominant chord (58 & 59), and a last measure on the tonic (60). As regards the soprano, it plays 3rd with neighbor tones between chord tones. The rhythmic pedal of dominant (D) is still here.

Measures 65 to 72:

Below the soprano which plays 3rd on the tonic chord tones (GM), the bass executes an upward and downward pattern. Then the bass plays an imitation of it on the E- chord tones (69). In measure 72, the bass plays a C#. So in this sequence the bass is based on 3rd (G in 65, E in 69, C# in 72).

Measures 72 to 80:

In fact, the E- chord is both a degree VI of the G major key and a degree II of the D major key to bring the A7 (V/V) chord in measure 72. Measures 72 to 74 uses double neighbor chromatic tone of the 3rd and the root of the A7 chord (A, Bb and C#, D at the same time). Note that E and G are 2 common tones between E-7b5 and A7. The E-7b5 chord is a minor subdominant of the D major key.

In measure 75 the bass follows a downward chromatic motion from D to B. The GM tonic chord is brought back with the 3rd inversion of the D7 dominant chord (which can be indicated +4).

Measures 76 to 79 are a conclusive group of measure and bring back the repetition of measures 56 to 79. The bass goes upward from B to D (a 2 measures dominant pedal). Chords are played with arpeggios and there is no specific speech in the soprano or other register. The soprano can be summed up as D, C, B, A, G a stepwise motion from the dominant to the tonic. After a A- chord in measure 76, there is a 4th and 6th double approach chord of D7 (like a 2nd inversion of GM) followed by D7.

Measures 80 to 104 are almost the repetition of 56 to 79. However measure 100 uses a G#°7 chord instead of GM. This G#°7 chord is an extension of E7b9, which is a dominant of the 2nd degree of the G major key (played in the next 101st measure). In measure 99 the previous chord is D7 and we can note that this is actually the degree IV of the A minor melodic scale.

The C intermediate section:

This intermediate section can be described as a musical comment with a less busy arrangement and the use of some silences. Although it uses specific techniques like the harmonics, there is no specific theme or important speech.

Measures 104 to 126:

Measures 104 to 107 are almost a melodic sequence: the same pattern is played a 2nd lower. Once again the chords used are symmetrical: GM, DM, AM, DM and DM, AM, DM, GM. The soprano follows a downward stepwise motion. 107 to 109 use plated chords.

In measure 109, note the 4th and 6th inversion without the 4th. This is probably because the 3rd of the dominant chord is played by the soprano in measure 110, so it can’t be approach by the intermediate line.

Measures 110 to 115 are almost a repetition of 104 to 109. As it is often the case in this piece when some measures are repeated, note that plated chords are replaced by arpeggios (113 to 115).

Measures 116 to 126 are a conclusive group of measure in which alternate the tonic and the dominant chord. The intermediate line plays 3rd with natural and chromatic passing tones. Measures 122 to 124 sound a little like an orchestral resolution on the tonic chord and it also recalls measures 37 to 39. Note the use of harmonics on the GM tonic chord tones in measure 125.

Measures 127 to 132 modulate to the A minor key, subdominant key of the E minor tonic key. This modulation is brought by the GM chord in measure 127, a pivot chord: the previous tonic (I) is now the degree VIIM of the A minor natural scale. Measures 127 and 128 follows a VIIM, VIM and V7M progression in which each chord is played in the 1st inversion. 129 and 130 make us hear the V – I progression in the A minor key. In measures 131 and 132 the soprano follows the same pattern as in 127. This time the GM chord is used as a pivot between the A minor and the B minor key: it’s both the previous degree VIIM and the new degree VIM. In fact, in measures 132 and 133, the F#7b9 chord brings a BM dominant chord of the E minor key.

Measures 134 to 146:

Those measures are used to bring back the E minor key. Here the soprano follows a downward stepwise chromatic motion from the dominant to the 7th degree. The lowest line plays a dominant pedal. On each beat, there are plated chords: BM, A#° over the B pedal, B7, EM, E-, B7, E- and BM.

Measures 142 to 146 are a conclusive group of measure in which alternate the dominant BM and the V/V dominant of the dominant F#7.

Measures 146 to 158:

From 146 to 149 the opening motif of measure 40 is played again transposed in the BM dominant chord. It is repeated twice: once in a high register and then 2 octaves lower. 150 to 154 make us hear the A theme (measure 1) used in a harmonic sequence (EM, AM, DM, GM). It is first played in the A minor key (the AM chord in measure 152 being in fact a dominant chord of DM). Then it is played in the G major key. From 154 to 158, the progression F#°, E- and D# (III, II, I, VII) is played with first inversions and delayed 7th between bass and soprano. Once again this is the GM chord which is a pivot and brings the modulation back to the E minor key.

Measures 158 to 243: A’ the return

In measure 158 the A theme coming from the 1st measure is back. 162 to 166 consist in a harmonic sequence like in measure 9 but with more counterpoint. There are delayed 7th and also imitations between the soprano and the intermediate line. In measure 166, there is a pause on the dominant chord. In measure 173, the avoided resolution of the dominant to the degree VIM (CM) announces the end.

175 to 226:

Here the B theme which was originally written in the G major key is “transposed” and changed to fit with the E minor key. Nevertheless, there are still the chromatic approaches of the 5th of the chords in the soprano. 175 to 179 consist in a 4 measures melody which ends by a non conclusive V – I progression whereas 179 to 183 finish with a conclusive V – I. Note that measure 181 recalls 104 and 105. 181 to 191 alternate between 2 measures on the tonic chord and 2 measures on the dominant chord. Remark the soprano uses 3rd again.

191 to 198 is the transposition of measure 64 to 71.

From 199 to 205, after several inversions of the A#°7 chord (dominant of the dominant) with a tonic pedal in the soprano and an acceleration of the rhythm, there is 4th and 6th approach of the dominant chord (203).

205 to 227 are almost like 183 to 205. In measure 219, we can note the double approach F# and A of G and remark that passing or approach tones are on the beat.

227 to 235 are based on measure 153 to 158, which are themselves based on the 2nd part of the A theme (9 to 13). Nevertheless note that this time the harmony is II, 4th and 6th and V. Those measures may also recall measures 127 to 129.

From measures 231 to 235, the intermediate line plays chromatic downward 3rd. Over a tonic pedal bass, there are the chords: GM, F#M (V/V), F#° (which could be a dominant), EM, E° (a V/V).

The harmonics in measure 235 come from 124.

243 to 259: the coda

It uses the following chords over a tonic pedal bass (and soprano): V/IV, IVM, IVm and IM with a delayed 4th. The last measures use upward arpeggios of the E major chord. Note the chromatic downward intermediate line between D and B.

To conclude, this piece clearly shows how essential and sophisticated was the parameter of the form during the classic period, as it is the case in Mozart, Haydn and Beethoven music. Like in the Opera or theater, a dramatic effect is created by different textures, rhythm, chromatic lines and the use of same themes in different keys…

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